Tag Archives: PivotTable

Why is my Excel file so LARGE? Learn how to reduce Excel file size!

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In this post I will explain various ways to reduce Excel file size. Large Excel files slow down your system, increase the likelihood of the file crashing as well as obviously use more drive space.XLSB files save or open faster

Microsoft Excel was designed to be a tool for managing relatively small datasets for Finance & Accounting purposes, today we see that Excel is used often for large data analysis, prototyping of complex solutions (built often with VBA Marcos). You probably wondered here struggling with bloated Excel file, frustrated with having to wait for calculations to complete or constantly crashing Excel file.

Reduce Excel file size… or change the tool

Before we start working to reduce the Excel this is a good moment to ask yourself the question…

Is Excel the right tool for the job?

If you are convinced so proceed further, otherwise consider that Microsoft Excel has built several tools dedicated to managing with challenges that appear when working with larger data sets:

  • PowerQuery – this Microsoft AddIn for Excel was created specifically for pulling and running queries on large datasets in Excel. You can easily merge worksheets, csv files or run complex relationship queries across your worksheets
  • PowerBI – Microsoft PowerBI is a free application you can download from the Microsoft Store that allows you to create custom dashboards, run complex analytics… and easily publish your dashboards and reports online

Save file as Binary (XLSB)

xlsb vs xlsx
Saving a file in XLSB from my experience often resulted in reducing file size even by 70%.. If you don’t know the difference between a XLSX (OpenXML format) and XLSX (Binary Excel format) file format I encourage you read my post on XLSB.

Since Excel 2007 Microsoft was pressured to open up the Excel format so other applications could use it. This meant moving away from the binary file format which was storage friendly and would open efficiently, to the more heavy file format (XMLs files compressed to a ZIP file). In effect the XSLX file format will always be larger than the XLSB.

To save a file in binary format go to FILE click on Save As and select Excel Binary Workbook (*.xlsb) as shown below.
Save Excel file as XLSB

Remove Used Cell Range

A troublesome thing that can increase your Excel file size is Used Range. Imagine the worksheet below. Let us assume at some point I added some data into cell G16, and afterwards I deleted it. Although de facto I am only now using A1:C4, de jure Excel will keep in memory the entire range of A1:G12 expanding the file size.
Unempty Cells vs Actually Excel Used Range

How to check your Excel Used Range? Use the CTRL+END key combo. You will be moved to the last cell in your Worksheets Used Range

Removing Unused Ranged

So what to do to reduce your Used Range only to the actual range you are using? Follow the steps below:

Remove data and formatting from unused cells

Select all unneccesary cells that contain data or formatting and go to Home->Editing->Clear and select Clear All:
Excel Delete Unused Range

Reset Worksheet Used Range

Now we need to update the Used Range property in your Worksheet. Go to the Developer Tab and open the VBE. Next add the following VBA Macro to any VBA Module.

Next run the Macro (or use the F5 shortcut). The Used Range should be now updated.

Remove Hidden / Unused Worksheets

Another reason for large file size is having many unused or hidden worksheets in your Workbook. Each Excel Worksheet has it’s own share of metadata, more importantly, however, you may be keeping sheets with similar datasets, copies or unnecessary Pivot Tables that also take up a lot of space. Follow steps below to show and delete unnecessary hidden worksheets.

Unhide hidden worksheets

To unhide hidden worksheets right-click on a Worksheet and select Unhide:Excel Unhide Hidden Worksheets

Delete unused Worksheets

To delete an unused Worksheet right-click and select Delete:
Excel Delete Worksheet

Remove Formatting

Formatting adds additional kilobytes to your Excel file size. A good approach is to remove any formatting from cells that don’t need formatting.

To remove cell formatting you can read this MSDN article or follow below:

Select Cells and click Clear Formats

Select Cells for which you want to remove formats. Look for the Editing section in the Home ribbon and select Clear Formats:
Excel Clear Formatting

Compress Images

Another reason for Excel to have an unreasonable file size is due to media, especially Images. Although you may think cropping and Image and resizing reduce its size, in fact Excel still keeps the entire image in memory. Hence the only way to free Image memory is to Compress Pictures.

Crop and Compress Images in Excel

To Compress your Images click on your Image(s) in Excel and go to Format->Adjust->Compress Pictures. Next select your preffered options. Select Delete cropped Areas of pictures to remove the unseen cropped areas of your images as well as the preffered resolution (the lower the more pixelated the image will seem):
Excel Crop Images and Reduce Resolution

Other options

Other honorable mentions to reduce your Excel file size may be:

  1. Remove unused Pivot Tables
  2. Remove Pivot Cache
  3. Replace Formulas with Data (Copy Paste as Data)

Feel free to comment below and add your ideas!

Data Analysis Excel Tools

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Excel is most appreciated for it’s ease of use as a Data Analysis Tool. I mean to explore the basics, as well as the more advanced Data Analysis Excel Tools. Be sure to read through the Other Tools section below for other honorable mentions.

Data Analysis Excel Tools
Sort & Filter PivotTable What If Analysis Data Analysis Toolpak Solver MS Query (SQL)

The DATA ribbon tab

As some of you already have noticed MOST (except for the PivotTable for no good reason) of the tools described in this post focus on features available BY DEFAULT within the Excel DATA ribbon tab (see image below). Some of them are AddIn that are installed by default along with MS Office, however, need to be activated manually. Skip to the relevant section of this post to read more.

excel data ribbon tab
Excel DATA ribbon tab (click to expand)
In this post I am focusing just on features that allow you to explore data or solve certain analytical problems. I am not focusing on simple data transformation features like removing duplicates, however, I do encourage that you learn more on these non-mentioned features.

Sort & Filter

Let’s kick off with the Sort & Filter group. See below for a quick look at how to use the Sort and Filter feature in Excel on an example data set:


PivotTables are so versatile a tool that most often no other Data Analysis Tool is needed. PivotTables are great for exploring data sets and for visualizing data with the help of automatically generated PivotCharts. See a simple PivotTable example below:

What If Analysis

The What If Analysis button in the DATA ribbon tab facilitates generally two useful features:

  • Scenario Manager – the scenario manager allows you to add several scenarios to a certain problem and then generate a summary comparing how the scenario values impact a selected cell value
  • Goal Seek
  • Data Tables – creating scenarios

Let’s explore these tools (apart from the last one) on a simple problem case example.
The problem:
what if the problem

Our example assumes there is a 500k$ Marketing Budget to spend on a Marketing Campaign which can consist of spending on Internet and/or TV ads. What is more, for the sake of the example let’s assume:

  • TV ads have a parabolic impact (see below) on Product demand i.e. at first the more you spend the more Product demand you generate, until you reach a peak where Product demand will actually fall (maybe viewers are tired of their favorite programs being bombarded by your ads).
  • Internet ads have a linear impact on Product demand i.e. the more you spend the more Product demand you generate

internet and tv spend
The Product demand cell formula is:


Scenario Manager

Using the example mentioned above let’s use the Scenario Manager to create 3 separate scenarios:

  1. 100% TV spend – 500k$ spent on TV ads
  2. 50% TV and Internet spend – 250k$ spent both on TV and Internet ads
  3. 100% Internet spend – 500k$ spent on Internet ads

Open the Scenario Manager

To add our scenarios go to the DATA ribbon tab, click What If Analysis and then select Scenario Manager....

Click Add to add a new Scenario

Specify the Scenario details – especially the range of Changing Cells that are to be specified by the scenario:

Scenario Manager: Adding a Scenario
Scenario Manager: Adding a Scenario

Next provide values as appropriate to your Scenario:
Scenario Manager: Setting the Scenario Values
Scenario Manager: Setting the Scenario Values

Repeat for each Scenario

You need to Name and specify the Changing Values for each Scenario separately.

Generate a Summary

Hit Summary... to generate a neat worksheet with a summary of your Scenarios. Specify the Result Cells – cells which will be modified in result to your Scenario. In my case it is just the Product demand cell:

Scenario Manager: Generate Summary
Scenario Manager: Generate Summary

Now admire the results:
Scenario Manager: Results
Scenario Manager: Results

Notice that in this example on purpose I created the formula as such so that it is not directly obvious (unless you work out the formula maximum) what is the best mix of TV and Internet ads. We will work through this example using different tools below.

Goal Seek

Goal Seek calculates the values necessary to achieve a specific goal. The “goal” is an amount returned by a formula. So in short – you should use Goal Seek if you have a function which characteristics are unknown or hard to figure out. Goal Seek is Solver’s younger (less developed) brother.

Some examples of when to use Goal Seek:

  • Solving single (changing) parameter mathematical functions (seeking a specific value e.g. 0)
  • Doing a quick check if a single parameter can help achieve a specific value for a formula (e.g. financial statements)

Using Goal Seek

Ok let’s learn how to apply Goal Seek. Let’s reuse our above example – let’s say we are aware that our TV ads function is a parabolic or a polynomial at least and we want to quickly locate some of it’s 0 values.

Our Product demand (just for TV ads) looks as so if we ignore the Internet ads:


Where C3 is Marketing Spend on TV ads.

Open Goal Seek

Go to the DATA ribbon tab, click What If Analysis and then select Goal Seek.

Provide the Goal Cell, Value and the Changing Cell

For our example the Goal is our Product demand, and our Changing Cell will be the Marketing Spend on TV ads:

Goal Seek: Setting up
Goal Seek: Setting up

Run Goal Seek and BEWARE!

This is the result I received. Notice that the value I provided into the TV ads cell was 0 to start with.

Goal Seek: Results
Goal Seek: Results

This time Goal Seek came up with the result: 0. Ok now let’s rerun this example. But this time I will type a higher starting value for TV ads spend… say 150k$. Do you think it will provide the same result? See below:
Goal Seek: Results with different starting point
Goal Seek: Results with different starting point

The computed result is different! This time Goal Seek came up with the result: 200. No why is that? Goal Seek is an iterative algorithm that in an iterative manner seeks to reach the Goal Value. However, if a function (cell formula) has several solutions expect that Goal Seek may land at different values.

This is very important to keep in mind!

Goal Seek in VBA

Not many know that you can use Goal Seek easily in VBA too! The parameters are as such:
Range.GoalSeek(Goal, ChangingCell)

  • Range – single cell with Goal function (formula)
  • Goal – the Goal Value to achieve
  • ChangingCell – single cell which will can be modified to achieve the Goal

MSDN provides a sexy example below:

Worksheets("Sheet1").Range("Polynomial").GoalSeek Goal:=15, ChangingCell:=Worksheets("Sheet1").Range("X")

Data Analysis Toolpak

Also know as Analysis Toolpak is a Microsoft AddIn delivered with Excel (usually disabled by default) that provides data analysis capabilities to Excel. Let’s start by enabling this AddIn:

Enabling the Analysis Toolpak

Find Add-Ins in Excel Options

To open the Window go to FILE, select Options and then pick AddIns.

Analysis Toolpak: Excel Options
Analysis Toolpak: Excel Options

Next from the above window hit Go to progress to Step 2.

Open the Add-Ins window and enable the Add-In

From the Window below select Analysis Toolpak and hit OK:

Analysis Toolpak: Enabling the Add-In
Analysis Toolpak: Enabling the Add-In

Using the Analysis Toolpak

To open the Analysis Toolpak window simply go to the DATA ribbon and you should find at your far right in a new group (Analysis) the Data Analysis button. Hit it to open the whole range of Data Analysis Excel tools.

Analysis Toolpak: Opening
Analysis Toolpak: Opening

Click on the button to see the whole list of different tools:
Analysis Toolpak Tools
Analysis Toolpak Tools

I won’t go through all these tools as they are pretty straightforward. Personally I tend to use only the Correlation feature which creates a nice correlation matrix out of a series of numerical columns.


Solver is a Microsoft AddIn to Excel that allows you to find optimal solutions for certain decision problems defined by a certain Objective (cell value). It’s like the older brother of the previously mentioned Goal Seek as it allows for more complicated computations and optimization making. Let’s start by enabling it in Excel.

Enabling the Solver AddIn

Find Add-Ins in Excel Options

To open the Window go to FILE, select Options and then pick AddIns.

Analysis Toolpak: Excel Options
Solver: Excel Options

Next from the above window hit Go to progress to Step 2.

Open the Add-Ins window and enable the Solver Add-In

From the Window below select Solver Add-In and hit OK:

Solver: Enabling the AddIn
Solver: Enabling the AddIn

Using the Solver AddIn

Now similarly as above let’s again consider our Problem from above.
what if the problem
As previously let’s exemplify this tool with our Marketing Budget example. Quick reminder – we have 500k$ to spend on TV and Internet ads and we have a formula that calculates our spend to the resulting Product demand.

Now we want to know what is the optimal value of our spend on TV and Internet ads to maximize Product demand. This is exactly what we can calculate with Solver:

To open Solver window simply go to the DATA ribbon and you should find at your far right in a new group (Analysis) the Solver button. Hit it to open the Solver wizard:


Solver requires that you:

  • Specify the Objective – set a single cell that measures your Objective. Next select whether you want to Maximize, Minimize or set this value by changing certain variables (specified later)
  • Specify the Changing Variables – specify the variables (cells) which should be modified by Solver to optimize your Objective function (formula)
  • Specify your Constraints – specify cells which should evaluate to certain constraints limiting the values of the Changing Variables

I used the settings above to run Solver on my Problem. See the results below:

Solver: Problem results
Solver: Problem results

The results are perfect (99 for TV ads and 401 for Internet ads)! Solver managed to find the optimal solution to my problem. Some of you probably thought the answer to be 100 and 400 :) – that was the hinted answer but not the optimal one! This is the power of Solver.

MS Query (SQL)

If you have been around my blog long enough you might have noticed my affection towards SQL in Excel manifested by my SQL Excel AddIn. I consider SQL a significant tool in the Data Analysis Excel toolbox. There are simply some things you won’t do easily with a PivotTable that can be easily written in a few SQL lines of code.

Let’s demonstrate a simple example of how to create a MS Query using the DATA ribbon tab using a simple source worksheet – Sheet1:
SQL Example data set

Open the MS Query window

Go to the DATA ribbon tab, click From Other Sources and then select From Microsoft Query.

Add MS Query (SQL)
Add MS Query (SQL)

Follow the MS Query window wizard to create your MS Query

This is the hard part. In my example I want to run a query against my working Workbook (Sheet1). See screens below:

Selecting the Data Source
Selecting the Data Source

Selecting the Excel file (can be your current Workbook)
Selecting the Excel file (can be your current Workbook)

Selecting the Worksheet and columns for your Query
Selecting the Worksheet and columns for your Query

Return data to Worksheet or Edit Query
Return data to Worksheet or Edit Query

Edit the Query (optional)
Edit the Query (optional)

Return Data to Worksheet (as Table/PivotTable/PivotChart)
Return Data to Worksheet (as Table/PivotTable/PivotChart)

Indeed that’s a lot of steps right? Hence, if you consider using MS Query (SQL) I strongly recommend my SQL Excel AddIn. It does the same in just 1 step. It does not add any new features to Excel but simply makes it so easy to create MS Queries in Excel – so you can just use it to create the queries using the AddIn. The AddIn is not required to use them.

Refresh or Edit your MS Query

This is the wonderful part – your MS Query is represented in Excel as a QueryTable. A queryable Excel Table that can be Refreshed or modified. See the options below available for QueryTables:

Refreshing/Editing the MS Query
Refreshing/Editing the MS Query

Summary: Data Analysis Excel

It is worth at least being aware of the wide range of Excel Data Analysis tools that are available by DEFAULT in Excel. Most Excel users are limited to the PivotTable and maybe Solver (2 common Excel questions asked for Analyst job interviews). However, Excel contains much more Data Analysis Excel tools than just those two.

I personally see much value in the MS Query (SQL) feature which has been so successfully hidden in Excel and made so hard to setup that it is simply neglected. Fortunately, there is a way around that with my SQL AddIn which I myself use on a regular basis. SQL however is a powerful tool (and language) and often allows you to create queries that can replace VBA macros and in most cases will run faster than VBA.

Excel Pivot Table Tabular layout

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Pivot Tables are a fantastic tool for slicing and dicing data. Sometimes, however, you need to spend quite a lot of time to achieve the right layout for your data. Today a short tutorial on how to achieve a pure pivot table tabular layout. Enjoy.

Tabular Form vs Compact Form

Let’s assume we have a table of data as such:
When creating a standard Pivot Table rows get appear in a treelike layout called the Compact Form as show below:
compact layout
What we want hover is some thing more like this in something called a Tabular Form:

Pivot Table Tabular Form

Below a short video tutorial of how to properly configure a Pivot Table to achieve a pure Tabular layout.

Video Tutorial

Step by step tutorial

Create a Pivot Table

  • Select all your data (CTRL + A)
  • Go to INSERT and select PivotTable

Select Tabular Form

  • Click on the Pivot Table and go to DESIGN
  • Select from Report Layout the option Show in Tabular Form

Remove subtotals for a pure Tabular layout

Repeat this step for each Subtotal row:

  • Click on the Subtotal DESIGN
  • Deselect Subtotal "ROW NAME"

Reverse engineering an Excel PivotTable / Flatten Excel PivotTable

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Today a quick tip that helped me out of a tight spot during one of my projects. The issue was that I received an Excel file with multiple PivotTables, but no source tables on which these PivotTables were built (these were in separate worksheets that were not shared). I needed the source data to produce my own custom complex reports (for which I use MS Queries instead of PivotTables), and I needed it now. Fortunately, PivotTables contain embedded source tables and there is a quick and easy way to recover Pivot Table data. Read on to learn how… maybe it will come useful.

How to reverse engineer a PivotTable

Let’s assume we have the following Excel PivotTable below.

Pivot Table Data
The PivotTable

Scroll to botton right cell of the Pivot

In order to recover the Pivot Table data associated with the PivotTable you need to scroll down to the right-most, bottom-most Grand Total value in the PivotTable.

Pivot Table data: Reverse engineering a PivotTable
Double Click on the Grand Total in the bottom right-most corner

Double click on the Pivot cell

Now simply double-click on the Grand Total and the source table will appear on a separate Excel Worksheet as show below:

Pivot Table data
The resulting source Pivot Table data

Easy right? Hope this helps you in similar situations – if yes, I appreciate a comment below!